American Administration and Law

By | September 24, 2021

Administration

The federal territory comprises 50 states with equal rights and the federally administered District of Columbia (D. C., with the federal capital Washington). The individual states are predominantly divided into counties, to which, apart from a few large cities, all municipalities (parishes) belong; Alaska has a division into divisions (districts), Louisiana calls the districts corresponding to the counties Parishes. The local divisions (municipalities, special districts, school districts, townships) are of great importance for the American understanding of democracy. There is a dualism in administration: Federal laws are implemented by federal authorities with their own administrations, laws of the individual states by corresponding administrative authorities. In the course of cooperative federalism, there is an exception to the federal contract administration.

State division of the USA

Administrative unit (abbreviation, post office) Area(in km 2) Residents (in 1,000, as of 2015) Residents(per km 2) capital city
States
Alabama (Ala., AL) 131 414 4,859.0 37 Montgomery
Alaska (Alas., AK) 1 481 210 738.4 0.5 Juneau
Arizona (Ariz., AZ) 294 285 6,828.1 23 Phoenix
Arkansas (Ark., AR) 134 843 2,978.2 22nd Little rock
Colorado (Col. 1), CO) 268 602 5,456.6 20th Denver
Connecticut (Conn., CT) 12 547 3,590.9 286 Hartford
Delaware (Del., DE) 5 059 945.9 187 Dover
Florida (Fla., FL) 139 657 20 271.3 145 Tallahassee
Georgia (Ga., GA) 149 962 10 214.9 68 Atlanta
Hawaii (Ha., HI) 16 633 1,431.6 86 Honolulu
Idaho (Id., ID) 214 294 1,654.9 8th Boise
Illinois (Ill., IL) 143 947 12 860.0 89 Springfield
Indiana (Ind., IN) 92 886 6,619.7 71 Indianapolis
Iowa (Ia., IA) 144 688 3 123.9 22nd Des Moines
California (Calif., CA) 403 895 39 144.8 97 Sacramento
Kansas (Kans., KS) 211 880 2 911.6 14th Topeka
Kentucky (Ky., KY) 102 886 4,425.1 43 Frankfort
Louisiana (La., LA) 112 814 4,670.7 41 Baton Rouge
Maine (Me., ME) 79 924 1,329.3 17th Augusta
Maryland (Md., MD) 25 312 6,006.4 237 Annapolis
Massachusetts(Mass., MA) 20 304 6,794.4 335 Boston
Michigan (Mich., MI) 147 108 9,922.6 68 Lansing
Minnesota (Minn., MN) 206 170 5,489.6 27 Saint Paul
Mississippi (Miss., MS) 121 477 2,992.3 25th Jackson
Missouri (Mon., MO) 178 397 6 083.7 34 Jefferson City
Montana (Mont., MT) 376 944 1,032.9 3 Helena
Nebraska (Nebr., NE) 199 080 1,896.2 10 Lincoln
Nevada (Nev., NV) 284 422 2,890.8 10 Carson City
New Hampshire(N.H., NH) 23 225 1,330.6 57 Concord
New Jersey (N.J., NJ) 19 209 8,958.0 466 Trenton
New Mexico (N.  Mex., NM) 314 280 2,085.1 7th Santa Fe
New York (N. Y., NY) 122 272 19,795.8 162 Albany
North Carolina (N.C., NC) 126 149 10 042.8 80 Raleigh
North Dakota (N.D. 2), ND) 178 630 756.9 4th Bismarck
Ohio (Oh., OH) 106 046 11 613.4 110 Columbus
Oklahoma (Okla., OK) 177 830 3 911.3 22nd Oklahoma City
Oregon (Oreg., OR) 248 607 4,029.0 16 Salem
Pennsylvania (Pa., PA) 116 064 12 802.5 110 Harrisburg
Rhode Island (R. I., RI) 2 706 1,056.3 390 Providence
South Carolina (S. C., SC) 77 976 4,896.1 63 Columbia
South Dakota (S. D. 3), SD) 196 522 858.5 4th Pierre
Tennessee (Tenn., TN) 106 742 6,600.3 62 Nashville-Davidson
Texas (Tex., TX) 677 989 27 469.1 40 Austin
Utah (Ut., UT) 212 731 2,995.9 14th Salt Lake City
Vermont (Vt., VT) 23 954 626.0 26th Montpelier
Virginia (Va., VA) 102 539 8,383.0 82 Richmond
Washington (Wash., WA) 172 332 7 170.4 42 Olympia
West Virginia (W. Va., WV) 62 355 1,844.1 30th Charleston
Wisconsin (Wis., WI) 140 649 5,771.3 41 Madison
Wyoming (Wyo., WY) 251 466 586.1 2 Cheyenne
Federal District
District of Columbia (D. C., DC) 159 672.2 4 228 Washington
1) Also Colo.2) Also N. Dak.

3) Also S. Dak.

Law

The judiciary has two separate court systems, each with a full range of instances, namely the courts of the individual states and the federal courts. The federal courts are responsible for federal disputes as well as for disputes between parties from different states or countries: On the lower level are the federal district courts (United States District Courts), above the federal appeals courts (United States Circuit Courts) and the last instance is the Supreme Court (United States Supreme Court) in Washington, DC, which also reviews the constitutionality of federal and state laws in specific legal cases. All federal judges are appointed by the President for life.

Each member state has its own, mostly tripartite or bipartite court system for disputes that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the federal courts. The national judges are mostly elected by the people for a period of time. Some are also appointed by the governor or other political bodies. In both criminal and civil cases there is often a right to a decision by a jury (jury trial), whose judgments have recently been increasingly subject to constitutional scrutiny. B. when awarding high sums of damages (punitive damages).

Another special feature of procedural law is the admissibility of class actions, with which similar claims of a large number of plaintiffs can be enforced in one proceeding. There is no special jurisdiction in labor, administrative or social matters. The ordinary courts are regularly responsible, with the exception of a few special legal matters such as Lawsuits against the federal government, certain tax disputes, international commercial matters or patent matters.

The legal system is based on the judicial principles of Anglo-American common law. The only exception is the state of Louisiana whose right z. Partly still influenced by continental European, especially French influences. The legislative and thus also the judicial and administrative competence lies in principle with the federal states and only in the areas listed by the constitution that require a nationwide uniform regulation, with the federal legislature. The legislation of the member states is subject to various standardization efforts. In some legal matters, identical or similar regulations apply in a large number of member states on the basis of model laws that have been drawn up by intergovernmental commissions, for example in commercial and securities law on the basis of the Uniform Commercial Code; B. in some areas of corporate and procedural law. Death penalty provided.

American Administration