Armenia Geography and Population

By | January 8, 2023

Armenia – geography

Present-day Armenia is located in the northeastern corner of historic Armenia. Towards the SW it borders Turkey and Nakhichevan; the latter belongs to neighboring Azerbaijan, but is located in historic Armenia. On the territory of Azerbaijan is also the former autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh, where a large majority of the population are ethnic Armenians. To the north, the country borders Georgia and to the SE of Iran.


It is estimated that 2.5 million people live there. Armenians outside the former Soviet Union, in Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, France, the United States and South America. There are approximately 1.5 million Armenians in Georgia, in various areas of the North Caucasus and other parts of the former USSR. In connection with acts of war, several of the ethnic minorities in the area have been displaced or fled; in 1988-89, an estimated 300,000 Armenians thus left Azerbaijan. The collapse of the Soviet Union also led to great emigration; 1992-2002 left an estimated 0.5 million. Armenians homeland.

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Natural conditions

Armenia is a highland area between the two rivers Kura to the north and Araks to the south. There are several mountain ranges and massifs, and large areas are located at an altitude of 2-3000 m; the highest is the volcano Aragats (Alaghez), 4095 m. In contrast, the Armenian national mountain, Ararat, is located in Turkey.

The main rivers are the Debet, which runs through the Little Caucasus Mountains in the north and is a tributary of the Kura, and the Razda, which drains the large and high-lying Sevan Island and is a tributary of the Araks, the border river to Turkey and Iran. The Armenian rivers are not navigable, but the steep runs and the large water flow are used for electricity production and irrigation.

The climate in the mountainous area is very varied with warm subtropical valleys and temperate plateaus. Everywhere the climate is continental with cold winters. Many areas are covered in rain by the surrounding mountain ranges, and irrigation is widespread in the long hot summer.

The Caucasus region is geologically active; here are several volcanoes, and Armenia is often hit by earthquakes. In 1988, Kumajri was hit by a violent earthquake that killed 28,000 people. A large-scale international relief effort was launched, in which the Armenians’ traditional arch-enemy Turkey also participated. At the request of the public, the nuclear power plant in Kumajri was shut down due to the danger of earthquakes. For culture and traditions of Armenia, please check animalerts.


Industry’s share of GDP fell from 44.5% in 1990 to 20% in 1998; since then, industry has been growing relatively strongly, but this also applies to other sectors, and the share of GDP in 2006 is still approximately 20%; the main industries are machinery, iron and metal, oil and chemical industry, light industry and food processing. Mining is significant with copper, gold, molybdenum, zinc and aluminum.

The most important agricultural areas are the Arak river valley and the Yerevan area. The growth period is 6-7 months, and Armenia supplied the Soviet Union with several subtropical crops: fruits, vegetables and a significant amount of wine. There is also grain cultivation, plantations with olives and pomegranates and a number of sheep and cattle breeding.

Social conditions

The 1988 earthquake, the large influx of refugees, the war with Azerbaijan, the economic blockade of Azerbaijan and Turkey and the cutting off of other important supply lines in the troubled area have created major economic and social problems. From 1990 to 1992 alone, GDP was estimated to have halved. Armenia was a closely integrated part of Soviet cooperation and was hit hard by the problems of change following the collapse of the economic infrastructure of the former USSR. Since 1994, however, GDP has grown almost continuously, and in 2003 it was 13.9% higher than in 2002.

Armenia – language

The mother tongue of up to 98% of the population is Armenian. The state language is modern Eastern Armenian, which is also spoken in the adjacent areas. See Armenian. The main minority languages ​​are Kurdish and Russian, each spoken by about 1% of the population.

Armenia Geography