Brazil’s economy is the leader in Latin America in various economic sectors, such as industrial, agriculture, and exports. In addition, it is a member of the BRICS bloc (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), countries considered emerging superpowers. The nation is a member of other important economic forums both regionally and internationally, such is the case of MERCOSUR, UNASUR and CELAC as well as the G20.. Despite its high industrial development and having high levels of foreign investment, Brazil is one of the most unequal nations on the continent, due to the immense differences that exist between the urban population and the rural population, the latter mostly immersed in high degrees of poverty and illiteracy. The Brazilian indigenous peoples comprise a large number of different ethnic groups that inhabited the current Brazilian territory before the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th century and even today there are numerous ethnic groups in various areas of the country. Brasilia is the capital city of Brazil according to simplyyellowpages.
It is located in the Federal District (true heart of the country, in the state of Goiás) which is located in the central part of the country, about 950 km northwest of Rio de Janeiro. The Central-West region of Brazil is one of the five great regions in which Brazil is divided. The city is located in a South American ecoregion known as “Cerrado”, which is similar to a savanna. The main rivers found around the city are the Preto, Santo Antônio do Descoberto and São Bartolomeu.
With the aim of being the new capital of Brazil, Brasilia was built. The idea was to transfer the federal capital located on the coast to the interior of the country. Brazil previously had two capital cities: Rio de Janeiro and Salvador de Bahia. By moving the capital to the interior, the government intended to help populate that area of the country. People from all over the nation, especially from the Northeast Region of Brazil, were hired for the construction of the city. This beautiful city is internationally known for having applied the principles established in the Charter of Athens of 1933. Two of the main objectives were, on the one hand, to promote the development of the interior of the country and, on the other, to provide the nation with a totally new capital and seat of the central government.
Most of the outstanding buildings were created by Oscar Niemeyer and the plan of the city was the work of Lúcio Costa. The landscaping was in charge of Roberto Burle Marx, built on a base in the shape of an airplane that points to the southeast, although Lucio Costa insists that it was sought to give it the shape of a cross. The terrain was originally arid and inhospitable, so a water dam was built in the area.
- The Cathedral of Brasilia, whose full name is Catedral Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora Aparecida (called the Metropolitan Cathedral Nossa Senhora Aparecida in Portuguese) is the work of the architect Oscar Niemeyer. This hyperboloid structure is made of concrete, and it appears with its glass roofto rise and open to the sky. The structure of the Cathedral was completed on May 31, 1970 and was based on the hyperboloids of revolution, whose sections are asymmetric. The hyperboloid structure itself is the result of 16 identical concrete columns. These columns, which have a hyperbolic section and weigh 90 tons, represent two hands moving towards the sky. It is undoubtedly one of the most emblematic buildings in Brasilia
- The National Congress of Brazil. Of all the constructions, it is undoubtedly the largest and most articulated, composed of two well differentiated parts: a three-story horizontal building, with a front of (200) two hundred meters, which houses the Senate. located in a half sphere, and the Chamber of Deputies, located in another broader but inverted hemisphere. As is to be expected, to this articulated set must be added all the services, which, of course, are complete and numerous.
Like most of the official buildings in the city, it was designed by Oscar Niemeyer following the style of modern Brazilian architecture. The hemisphere located on the left is the seat of the Senate, and the one on the right is the seat of the Chamber of Deputies. Between them are two office towers. Congress also occupies other surrounding buildings, some of which are interconnected by a tunnel.
The site is located in the center of the Monumental Axis, the main avenue of the capital. In front of the Congress there is a large garden and a reflecting pond. The Congress is located in front of the Plaza de los Tres Poderes, where the Planalto Palace and the Federal Supreme Court are located.
- Palacio de la Alvorada It is the official residence of the President of Brazil. One of the first structures built in the new capital of the republic, the “Alborada” is located on a peninsula on the banks of Lake Paranoá. The principles of simplicity and modernity, which in the past characterized the great works of architecture, oriented to Niemeyer’s project.
The viewer has the impression of seeing a glass box, which gently landed on the ground supported by thin external columns. It has an area of 7,000 square meters (75,000 square feet) and three floors: basement, landing and second floor.
In the basement is the auditorium, kitchen, laundry, medical center, and the administration of the building. On the landing are the rooms used by the Presidency for official receptions. The second floor is the residential part of the palace, with four suites, two apartments and other private rooms. In the area it occupies there is a library, a heated Olympic-size swimming pool the size of an Olympic-size swimming pool, a music room, two dining rooms and several meeting rooms. Located in the adjacent buildings it has the chapel and the helipad.
- Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge It was inaugurated on December 15, 2002 and is known as the JK Bridge. It is also located in the Monumental Axis of the city, and receives its name in honor of the former President of the Republic. Its structure is different from that of the rest of the bridges that may exist in the world, and it adapts perfectly to the environment around it. It has three lanes in each direction and another area that allows it to be used by cyclists and skaters.