Djibouti Geography and Population

By | January 8, 2023



POPULATION: 828,000 (2015)

AREA: 23,200 km²


RELIGION: Muslims 94%, Christians 6%

CURRENCY: djibouti franc




POPULATION COMPOSITION: issa 49%, afar 41%, other 10%

GDP PER CAPITA INH.: $ 1685 (2014)

LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 60 years, women 65 years (2015)




Djibouti, formerly French Somaliland, Afar and Issa Territory, since 1977 independent republic in northeastern Africa with strategic location at the entrance to the Red Sea.

National Flag

The flag was officially introduced in 1977. The blue color is linked to one of the country’s two dominant population groups, issa, and the green and white color to the other, afar. According to the official explanation, the blue stands for the sea, the green for the earth, the white for peace and the red for unity.


Djibouti is a small, poor country and completely dominated by the capital Djibouti. It is one of the hottest and driest places in the world; in July it is average. maximum temperature 42 °C. From the Red Sea coast, a sandy and rocky desert rises into the Ethiopian highlands in the west. Along the way, the desert is broken by mountain formations, lowland plains, the Afar depression and the salt lake of Assal, whose surface is 156 m below sea level. It is Africa’s lowest point and part of the Rift Valley where it from the Red Sea enters the African continent. The rainfall is in most places below 200 mm per day. years, and only on the rainiest mountainsides there is woody vegetation.

The population is mainly made up of the two peoples afar and issa, which are roughly equal. In addition, a significant element of French technicians and personnel associated with the French military base, including a contingent of the Foreign Legion. Both Afar and Issa are Sunni Muslims and speak Cushitic languages, but Djibouti’s official language is French. Afar is particularly linked to the northern part and has close ties to Afar in Eritrea and Ethiopia, while Issa, which traditionally inhabits the southern part of the country, is a Somali people with clan connections into Somalia.. In addition, a very significant number of refugees from famine and civil wars in the region. Djibouti is one of the countries in the world that houses the highest number of refugees in terms of population. Struggles between the Afar and the Issa are frequent, and in the early 1990’s an Afar-dominated guerrilla fought the Ice-led government. Despite the close links with conflicting groups in neighboring countries, Djibouti has remained strictly neutral in the conflicts and has repeatedly negotiated solutions.

  • Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Djibouti? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.

Afar and issa are originally nomadic people with cattle, camel, sheep and goat breeding, but in modern Djibouti these professions are only of marginal importance. This also applies to agriculture in general, where dates and tomatoes are grown in individual well-watered oases. The vast majority of the country’s food supply is imported, as is the growing consumption of the khat drug that is flown in from Ethiopia as it is chewed completely fresh.

The economy is completely dominated by the transport and service sectors. The port is large and modern and serves as a foreign port for much of Ethiopia, to which the region’s only railroad links between Djibouti and Addis Ababa. However, continued expansion of the ports of Assab and Massawa in Eritrea offered Djibouti increased competition until the war between Ethiopia and Eritrea, which severed Ethiopia’s connection to the sea by this route.

The strategic location and major transit trade, together with well-functioning telecommunications and liberal laws, has meant that Djibouti has become a regional banking and business center. However, the French military base and substantial foreign aid resources remain vital to the foreign economy. In 2003, the United States established a military base with the headquarters of the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa in Djibouti.


Multi-party government with one president and two elected chambers was introduced in 1992. Hassan Gouled Aptidon (1916-2006) became president at independence in 1977 and was re-elected in 1993. In 1999, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh (b. 1947, a nephew of his predecessor) won the presidential election. without counter-candidates; he was re-elected in 2005.


The African area at Bab al-Mandab between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Adenwas until the beginning of 1200-h. part of Christian Ethiopia, but various Muslim groups then tried to fight for political independence. In the 1800’s. the area became the subject of both British and French interest. In 1839, Britain secured Aden, while the French succeeded in securing control of the coastal land on the Horn of Africa based on the small town of Obock. In the early 1880’s, the French territory expanded to include both sides of the Gulf of Tadjoura, and in 1888 the French built the port of Djibouti on the south side of the bay. In 1896, the colony of French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis) was declared and the port city of Djibouti became the capital and center of the colony administration. From 1967, the colony changed its name to the French Afar and Issator Territory (Territoire français des Afars et des Issas). A referendum in the same year prompted a majority to wish for continued affiliation with France, but over the following decade more and more advocates of full independence became. In 1977 the country became independent and applied for membership in the same yearThe Arab League. For culture and traditions of Djibouti, please check allunitconverters.

In 2000, a peace process began in the nine-year conflict between the government and the Afar rebellion movement. The movement began in 2002 to surrender and destroy its weapons, and there has been peace in the country ever since.

In 2010, the constitution was amended to allow incumbent President Ismail Omar Guelleh (b. 1947) to run for a third term, which happened in 2011, when Guelleh was re-elected. The constitutional amendment resulted in more protests.

Djibouti Geography