Georgia Geography and Population

By | January 8, 2023

Georgia (Geography)

Georgia has a lavish and varied nature. The northern part of the country is characterized by the Great Caucasus’ snow-capped peaks and south-facing mountain slopes. The highest point is Kazbek (5047 m). To the south lies the Little Caucasus, whose lower mountain ranges continue into Turkey and Armenia. In between are fertile, densely populated valley landscapes and coastal plains facing the Black Sea.

Approximately 40% of the mountainous land is covered by dense and varied coniferous and deciduous forest. The Caucasus protects the country from the cold from the north, and in the lowlands there is a subtropical climate with large amounts of precipitation (1000-2800 mm per year). The western parts of the mountains also get a lot of rainfall and the winters are very snowy. Especially on north-facing mountain sides, the snow does not manage to melt away in the summer, and the country has a large number of small glaciers. To the east, the climate becomes more continental and dry.

Autonomous areas
area (km2) residents1990; except Adjara (2002). capital city ethnic groups
Abkhazia 8600 538,000 Sukhumi Georgians, Abkhazians, Armenians, Russians
Adsjarien 3000 376,000 Batumi Georgians, Adjars, Russians, Greeks
South Ossetia 3900 100,000 Tskhinvali Ossetians, Georgians


The census in 2002 showed that the population had fallen from 5.5 million. in 1989 to 4.4 million. or approximately 20%. The decline is due to declining birth rates, high migration and the fact that the census could not be conducted in the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The composition of the population had also changed greatly, with the proportion of Georgians having grown from 70% to 84%, while the proportion of Russians had fallen from 6% to 1.5%; there were almost no Abkhazians and Ossetians left, and the proportion of Armenians and Azeris was almost unchanged at, respectively. 6% and 6.5%. The three autonomous territories are formed on the basis of the ethnic groups Adjars, Abkhazians and Ossetians. Here and in the country as a whole, there have been political and ethnic tensions since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. has led to significant migrations partly internally in the Transcaucasia.

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The population is very unevenly distributed; the mountains and the eastern steppes are sparsely populated. Two-thirds live in cities; the capital Tbilisi alone houses a quarter of the population.


Agriculture has good conditions in the low-lying subtropical areas with abundant rainfall, and Georgia is an ancient agricultural land. The agricultural sector is being privatized, with 25% of the cultivated land being in private hands and 30% being leased; it employs over a third of the workforce and its share of GDP is 16% (2004). The cultivation is intensive and versatile. During the Soviet era, the country supplied subtropical products to the entire union, including citrus fruits, tobacco, cotton and corn. On the mountain slopes there are large areas of tea, and the traditional viticulture continues. Southeast of Tbilisi, large areas of irrigation from the Kura River; here, among other things, wine, fruit and sugar beets. Forestry is significant and supplies timber from eucalyptus and bamboo for the manufacture of furniture and paper.

Mining is versatile; Georgia has large manganese deposits, but production has decreased since 1992. Small oil fields are found on the Black Sea, and the port city of Batumi with its oil refinery is the terminal for the Transcaucasian oil pipeline from the large fields of Azerbaijan. In addition to Tbilisi, Kutaisi and Rustavi are important industrial centers; here and elsewhere there are serious environmental problems associated with mining and industry.

The heavy rainfall in the mountains is exploited in several hydropower plants on the rivers, but the country is partly dependent on energy imports from Russia and Azerbaijan. The economic crisis in the country is reflected in declining electricity production and energy imports.

Tourism. With its many natural parks, seaside resorts and spas, Georgia was a favorite tourist area in Soviet times, not least the subtropical Black Sea coast. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and under the impression of the turbulent conditions in the country, the tourism industry is in crisis.

Georgia – language

The official language is Georgian. The language, written in its own ancient alphabet, is also widely used as a minority language in Iran, Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Georgia (Religion)

Georgia adopted Christianity in the early 300-t.; the Georgian Church has since been the country’s national church through all political upheavals and is today the largest denomination in the Georgian Republic. In addition, there are some religious minorities with domicile rights in the country’s history, such as Jews, Armenian Christians, Muslims, Catholics, etc.

Georgia Geography