Iraq Basic Information

By | November 5, 2022
Basic data
Capital Baghdad
Population 39,650,145
Language Arabic, Kurdish
Religion Islam 95-98% (Shia 61-64%, Sunni 29-34%), Christianity 1%, others 1-4%
State system federal parliamentary republic
Head of State President Barham Salih
Head of government Prime Minister Mustafa Kazimi
Currency name Iraqi dinar
Time shift +1 hour (summer time), +2 hours (winter time)
Economy 2021
Nominal GDP (billion USD) 173.2
Economic growth (%) 3.6
Inflation (%) 6
Unemployment (%) >20

According to a2zdirectory, Iraq, the full name of the Republic of Iraq, is a parliamentary democratic republic, but its political environment is highly corrupt and the situation in the country is still uneasy due to the influence of armed groups. The government is headed by the prime minister and the legislative body is the unicameral House of Representatives. There is a semi-autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan (Kurdistan Region of Iraq, KRI) in the northeast of the country, but it is economically dependent on Baghdad. Iraq has some of the largest oil reserves in the world, amounting to around 145 billion barrels. Between 1968 and 2003, the country was ruled by the National Socialist Ba’ath Party, today it has a multi-party system. A new democratic constitution, separating the executive, legislative and judicial powers, was adopted in 2005.

Since the establishment of the new regime in 2003, Iraq has tried unsuccessfully to promote economic competition, attract foreign investors and liberalize the economy, but it is still largely in the hands of the state. This also applies to the key sector of oil extraction, the pillar of the Iraqi economy. Iraq’s oil reserves are the fifth largest in the world. The sale of oil generates over 90% of state budget revenues, and oil makes up over 80% of export commodities.

Fluctuating oil prices and the impact of the pandemic have exacerbated Iraq’s economic woes, reversing the previous two years of steady recovery. This double shock has also exacerbated existing economic and social fragility and contributed to public protests that began even before the COVID-19 period. The Iraqi government’s ability to provide a stimulus package for an economy highly dependent on growth and oil revenues has been limited by the absence of fiscal space. As a result, the country saw its economy shrink the most since 2003.

In response to the seriousness of the crisis, the government developed a national plan in the so-called white paper, which sets out reforms for sustainable medium-term growth. It addresses some of the obstacles that stand in the way of diversification and hinder the development of the private sector today. The ultimate success of these transformational reforms depends on political will and public support. Meanwhile, corruption and under-provision of public services could lead to greater social tensions and undermine their implementation.

Prospective fields for Czech companies are energy, the defense and security industry, agriculture and the food industry, and last but not least, the field of construction and the supply of mechanical and technical equipment for the construction industry. In specific cases, it mainly concerns refineries and power plants, the construction of new investment units, or the expansion of the capacity of existing investment units. The opportunity to expand in supplies for the Ministry of Defense has been strengthened by promising purchases from the Iraqi side in recent years. The agricultural and food sectors are among the government’s priorities, and their development will be key to increasing the share of income from the non-oil sector in the state budget. The renewal and reconstruction of Iraq is also connected with the supply of machines and equipment for the operations of cement plants or lime plants as well as techniques for handling building materials.

Currently, Iraq’s economy is growing thanks to record oil prices and should reach pre-pandemic levels by 2023. However, the potential stemming from high oil prices is complicated by the inability to form a government after the October 2021 elections.

Practical telephone numbers (emergency services, police, firemen, information lines, etc.)

Police: +964 790 173 7727

Emergency call: 130 (from a landline), +964 1130 (from a mobile phone)

Fire reporting office: 105 (from a landline), +964 1105 (from a mobile phone)

Medical emergency service (Baghdad, near ZÚ CR):
YarmoukHospital: +964 770 885 4750
Red Crescent: +964 770 674 0081

Important web links and contacts

Unfortunately, the websites of Iraqi authorities and institutions are not a reliable source of information, in many cases they are outdated and confusing, sometimes lacking English versions, and should therefore only be taken as a guide to obtaining and verifying information from other sources.

  • Government of Iraq
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Ministry of Electricity
  • Ministry of Displacement and Migration
  • Ministry of Education
  • Ministry of Higher Education
  • Ministry of Industry and Minerals
  • Ministry of Trade
  • Ministry of Transportation
  • Ministry of Water Resources
  • Ministry of Construction and Housing
  • Ministry of Culture
  • Ministry of Communication
  • Ministry of Oil
  • National Investment Commission (NIC)
  • Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG)
  • Kurdistan Board of Investment (BOI)
  • Central Bank of Iraq (CBI)
  • Iraq Stock Exchange (ISX)
  • Trade Bank of Iraq (TBI)
  • General Commission for Customs (GCC)

Websites of selected important government offices and state-owned companies in Iraq:

  • State Commission of Roads and Bridges
  • National Center of Engineering Consultancy
  • State Commission of Housing
  • National Center of Constructional Laboratories
  • Ashur State Corporation Company (Road Construction)
  • Hamourabi State Corporation Company (road construction)
  • Al Fao State Corporation Company (Construction Company)
  • Saad State Engineering Company
  • Al Moutasim State Corporation Company (Civil Engineering)
  • Al Mansoor State Corporation Company (Civil Engineering)
  • Al Farouq State Corporation Company (Civil Engineering)
  • Al Rasheed State Corporation Company (Civil Engineering)
  • Diala State Company for Electrical Industries (electrical engineering)
  • Al Sumoud State Corporation Company (metal manufacturing)

Chambers of Commerce, Economic Councils and Industry Federations:

Unfortunately, none of the listed organizations have functional websites

Iraq Basic Information