|Population||2.64 million (without Transnistria)|
|Language||official language is Romanian/Moldavian, widely spoken is Russian|
|State system||parliamentary republic|
|Head of State||Maia Sandu|
|Head of government||Natalia Gavrilița|
|Currency name||Moldovan Leu (MDL)|
|Time shift||+1 hour|
|Nominal GDP (billion USD)||36.4|
|Economic growth (%)||7.4|
According to a2zdirectory, Moldova is a small landlocked country of 2.64 million people located between Romania and Ukraine. Moldova gained independence in 1991, and since its creation has faced problems with the separatist Transnistria, which declared independence and was not recognized internationally. Gagauzia, which has had an autonomous status since 1994, is part of Moldova. The unresolved dispute with Transnistria, which is supported by the Russian Federation, strongly influences Moldova’s internal and foreign policy. The country’s continued dependence on gas and electricity imports, which contributes to high energy prices and debts to foreign suppliers, is also decisive for foreign policy.
Until recently, Moldova benefited from the proximity of two large markets with which it has free trade agreements, the European Union and the CIS. Since 2014, when Moldova and the EU signed the Association Agreement, which includes the Comprehensive Free Trade Area Agreement, the volume of mutual trade has been growing. In 2021, the EU absorbed more than 61.1% of Moldovan exports.
The economy of Moldova is dominated by agriculture and the food industry. After an economic decline caused by the pandemic and drought of 7% in 2020, the Moldovan economy showed signs of recovery. In 2021, the economy started to recover and GDP grew by 7.4%. However, the assumption of further economic recovery in 2022 is strongly threatened by the war in Ukraine. Its consequences are an economic crisis, the loss of markets in the East and an increase in prices. Although Moldova did not join the sanctions, there were disruptions to export and import logistics with CIS countries, supply chains and mutual payments with Russia. A deepening of the trade deficit is expected in 2022, although the EU countries remain the main trading partner, but the share of exports to the CIS countries was 14.8% in 2021, the share of imports 26.5%.
Due to the high agricultural potential, it offers opportunities for food processing, there is a high demand for agricultural machinery, irrigation systems, refrigeration, sorting and processing lines. A traditional industry is the automotive industry, which is largely dependent on regional demand. Moldova offers free economic zones and industrial parks with tax breaks, which represent an opportunity to establish export-oriented manufacturing plants, where most of the automotive component companies are located. With the help of the international community, the government is also focusing on the development of new value chains in agriculture, tourism and winemaking.
Moldova is facing a demographic crisis with a shrinking and aging population. The working-age population goes abroad for economic reasons, and older people stay in the country, and the birth rate also decreases. This puts pressure on the pension system and limits the available labor force and the long-term competitiveness of the country. Moldova’s economy is also heavily dependent on remittances from abroad to individuals, which accounted for 12% of GDP in 2021.
In 2021, the pro-European party PAS won the parliamentary elections and a unique constellation of pro-European president and government emerged in Moldovan history. However, the government has to face the consequences of the pandemic, the energy crisis, which is associated with the threat of gas supply interruptions, and currently also the effects of the war in Ukraine. This is a strong security risk for Moldova, a state of emergency has been introduced and air traffic has been partially restricted. Moldova is also facing an influx of refugees, approximately 420,000 refugees passed through Moldova from the beginning of the war until April 2022, of which 100,000 refugees remained in Moldova. Moldova receives significant financial support from international institutions.
Practical telephone numbers (emergency services, police, firemen, information lines, etc.)
Chisinau Emergency Department (Institutul de Medicina Urgenta) (+373 22) 250761
The unified emergency line 112 was put into operation
- Emergency service 903
- Firefighters 901
- Police 902
- Taxi 14006, 14100, 14222, 14441, 14448, 14499, 14545 and others. The fare is significantly (several times) cheaper than in the Czech Republic. With the exception of the airport, railway and bus stations, there are practically no permanent locations of taxi services. It is almost always necessary to order a taxi by phone. Yandex and itaxi mobile phone apps work well.
- Information on telephones and addresses 1188, 1189 (paid service 0.40 Lei).
Important web links and contacts
Parliament of the Republic of Moldova – www.parlament.md
Government of the Republic of Moldova – www.gov.md
Presidency of the Republic of Moldova – www.presidente.md/eng
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration – www.mfa.gov.md
Ministry of Economy – www.me.gov.md
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry – www.maia.gov.md
Ministry of Environment – www.mediu.gov.md
Ministry of Finance – www.mf.gov.md
Ministry of Infrastructure and Regional Development – www.midr.gov.md
Ministry of Education and Research – www.mec.gov.md
Ministry of Culture – www.mc.gov.md
Ministry of Health – www.ms.gov.md
Ministry of Labor and Social Protection – www.ms.gov.md
Ministry of Justice – www.justice.gov.md
Ministry of Internal Affairs – www.mai.gov.md
Ministry of Defense – www.army.md
Chamber of Commerce and Industry – https://chamber.md
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Pridnestrovie – www.tiraspol.ru
Moldova Investment and Promotion Agency – www.invest.gov.md
National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova – www.statistica.md
National Bank of Moldova – www.bnm.md
Foreign Investors Association – www.fia.md
Database of Moldovan Companies – www.yp.md
State News Agency Moldpres – www.moldpres.md
Information agency INFOTAG – www.infotag.md
IPN Information Agency – www.ipn.md