Mongolia Basic Information

By | November 1, 2022
Basic data
Capital Ulaanbaatar
Population 3.40 million
Language Mongolian (Official)
Religion 53% Buddhism, 3% Islam, 2.3% Shamanism, 2.2% Christianity, 38.6% Atheists or Agnostics
State system a semi-presidential republic
Head of State Uchnagijn Churelsuch
Head of government Luvsannamsrajn Ojun-Erdene
Currency name tugrik (MNT)
Time shift +7h (in summer +6h)
Economy 2021
Nominal GDP (billion USD) 43.4
Economic growth (%) 2.6
Inflation (%) 6.9
Unemployment (%) 7.1

According to a2zdirectory, Mongolia is located in East Asia, after Kazakhstan it is the second largest landlocked country in the world. It borders Russia to the north and China to the south. In terms of area, the country is 20 times larger than the Czech Republic, but with only million inhabitants, it ranks among the countries with the lowest population density.

The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry, particularly the export of coal and copper ore. The government has long sought to diversify the economy by boosting tourism and domestic consumption. This process has been hampered by the covid-19 pandemic. Real GDP grew by only 2.6% in 2021, which was significantly affected by high inflation. According to estimates, the economy will not return to its pre-pandemic values ​​until the end of 2022 at the earliest. This is due to the ongoing tough anti-pandemic measures of the Chinese government, which have resulted in a slowdown and reduction in the volume of goods transported at the border. From the point of view of the Mongolian economy, the most significant problem is the disruption of the export of mineral resources to China and, recently, also the disruption of transport routes by Russian aggression in Ukraine.

Due to the specific market (language barrier, cultural differences), it is not easy for Czech entities to do business on the Mongolian market without a local partner. Business opportunities are mostly provided by a Mongolian company. In the case of capital participation or production cooperation, it is advisable that in addition to the Mongolian partner, a Czech representative is present, either because of the Mongolian habit of preferring personal negotiations, or because of the need to professionally guide local employees.

The predominant share of imports from the Czech Republic is carried out by Mongolian companies, which are usually also sellers of imported goods. Prospective fields for Czech entrepreneurs include agriculture, mining, energy, water management, aviation, food, healthcare and pharmaceutical industries. The pandemic crisis accentuated even more the need to modernize Mongolian health facilities. There is demand in the country for meat and milk processing technologies, leather processing equipment and wool cleaning. Czech companies manage to apply it in the construction of wastewater treatment plants, meat processing plants, dairy and bakery technologies, machinery in forestry, in the automation of coal-fired power plants, in the supply of measuring devices for the energy sector and track technology for mining mines.

An important element of the session is the granting of work visas to Mongolians under the Qualified Employee Program. The aim of the Program is to provide support to direct employers who need to bring qualified foreign workers to the Czech Republic. The original accent from fields in the automotive and meat industries is now spread practically without limitation.

In the field of human rights, Mongolia has come further from the legal point of view than many of its nearest and more distant Asian neighbors. As one of the few Asian countries, it also banned the death penalty in its legal system in 2015. With regard to its economic situation and geographical specifics, in Mongolia, in the human rights area, a healthy and safe environment, favorable working conditions, the right to education, the right to social guarantees, or the right to benefit from the shared resources that it abounds in are at the forefront of interest. Mongolia is exemplary in accepting international treaty human rights obligations, but has problems implementing them both for financial reasons and because of its cultural customs and traditions. Among others, these are commitments regarding the rights of the child, women, persons with disabilities, human rights defenders, LGBTI persons, political participation.

Practical telephone numbers (emergency services, police, firemen, information lines, etc.)

Police: 102

Ambulance: 103

Firefighters: 101

Immigration Service: +976-18001882

Office for Emergency Situations: 105

Information – airport: 19001980

Important web links and contacts

Office of the President:

Parliament (Great State Choral):


National Security Council:

Ministry of Foreign Relations:

Ministry of Mining and Heavy Industry:

Ministry of Finance:

Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry:

Ministry of Health:

Minister of Road Development and Transport:

Ministry of Energy:

Minister of Construction and Urbanization:

Ministry of Education and Science:

Ministry of Culture:

Ministry of Environment and Tourism:

Ministry of Labor and Social Security:

Ministry of Justice and the Interior:

Ministry of Defense:

Ministry of Economic Development:

Ministry of Digital Development and Communications:

Central Bank:

National Statistical Office:

Mongolian Tourism Board:

Immigration Office:

Economic and business institutions

Mongolian National Chamber of Commerce and Industry:

Czech-Mongolian Chamber of Commerce in Prague:

International organizations in Mongolia

World Bank:

Asian Development Bank:

United Nations:

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in Mongolia:

World Health Organization:

International Monetary Fund (IMF):

Trade and Development Bank:

Development Bank:


Constitution of Mongolia:

Investment Law:

Company Law:

General Tax Law:

Value Added Tax Law:

EU-Mongolia (relations):

Mongolia Basic Information