Niger Geography and Population

By | January 8, 2023

Niger – Geography

Niger – Geography, In terms of size, Niger is West Africa’s largest state, and the country extends from the Sahara in the north through the Sahel Belt to the northern part of the Sudan Sea to the south. The vast majority are in the tropical belt; to the south there is a short rainy season from May to August most years.

The Sahara is characterized by stone, gravel and sand, but is interrupted by the mountainous area of Aïr in the middle of the country. West of Aïr, since 1971, uranium has been extracted from a large open mine at Arlit. Local coal mining supplies energy for the uranium mining. Precipitation over Aïr and high groundwater during normal years allows the local Tuaregese a considerable animal husbandry, and several old caravan villages, including Agadèz testifies that the area has been the hub of caravan routes through the Sahara for centuries. Drought years in the 1970’s and 1984-85 drove many Tuaregans to neighboring countries or to cities.

To the east of Aïr lies the great Ténéré desert. The sand formations have named it Sahara’s most beautiful desert. Accommodation is only found here in a few oases and the salt beds in Bilma. Salt extraction and salt trade have played a major role throughout history, and even today salt plates from Bilma are transported by caravan the five day marches to Agadèz. South of the air begins Sahel shrub steppe, and this moves the Fulani majority of their large herds of Zebu cattle in the rainy season; in the dry season they migrate south again.

The area is intersected by large dry valleys, which testify to the humid climate of the past. The bush steppe continues, interrupted by a few oases, to the southeastern corner of Niger, around the almost desiccated Chad Lake, where the Canuris live. Here, near the border with Nigeria and at the transition to savannah, is also the old trading town of Zinder, whose sultan still holds some power. The majority of Niger’s population lives on the savannah. Local soil conditions determine the boundary of arable land, but erosion and soil erosion have diminished the population of Hausa.traditional farms. Also from here, the rural population fled during the drought years of the 1970’s and 1980’s, but many have returned and the country has been self-sufficient in grain since the mid-1980’s. However, in 1995-97, there was a drought again, and many were drawn to the cities again. The traditional crops are millet, sorghum and cassava with peanuts and cotton as cash crops; in the 1990’s, the feed plant cow-pea (vigna bean) for the Nigerian market has become the main selling crop.

In the southwestern corner of the country towards Benin and Burkina Faso lies the wide plain of the Niger River, inhabited by the Djerma and Songhai people. Here is a small area of ​​rice cultivation, the irrigation with the water of the Niger River, and here is Niamey, the country’s capital and all-dominant center.

Economics and social conditions

Cattle farming and arable farming employ approximately 80% of the population and contribute an estimated 35% of GDP. The standard of living is very low for the vast majority; measured in terms of the United Nations Living Conditions Index, HDI, in 2006 Niger ranked last among the 177 countries from which numbers. However, in a country like Niger, such figures are uncertain; For example, the World Bank estimates that 70% of economic activity in the country takes place in the informal sector and is thus not included in the statistics.

The foreign economy is characterized by huge loans, which include: was admitted to food imports during the drought years and to cope with the falling prices of the totally dominant export product, uranium. In addition, the general government revenue is very small; Among other things, a large part of agricultural exports takes place illegally. gasoline is smuggled across the 2000 km border to Nigeria. Falling prices of uranium led to financial crisis 1998-2001 and resulted in extensive strikes as wages for many months were not paid. Foreign debt was reduced in 2000 by the World Bank’s debt restructuring program.

The massive escape from the agricultural districts during the drought created large slums in the cities and many became refugees in neighboring countries. In rainy years, many returned, but especially for Tuaregans, it was problematic to resume nomadic living. Since the 1980’s, there have been violent conflicts involving hundreds of people killed. After foreign mediation, the Tuaregians have been promised a certain inner self-government. The peace agreement of 1997-99 led the majority of refugees to return to Niger; the rebels were integrated into the armed forces. On Lake Chad, there are still disputes over grazing and fishing rights.

Niger is one of the top priority countries for Danish development assistance, but like the other EU countries, Denmark has reduced aid after the military coup in 1996. However, support is still being provided for projects in the area of ​​democracy and human rights as well as health, women’s opportunities, water and sustainable use of firewood. For culture and traditions of Niger, please check aparentingblog.

Niger – language

Niger – language, approximately half the population speak the Afro-Asian language Hausa, and approximately 1 million the Nigerian Cordoba Fulani. Nilosaharic languages ​​are spoken, among others. in the SV djerma (approximately 2.1 million), around Lake Chad in Lake Kanuri (approximately 420,000) and in the oasis towns in NE teda (approximately 10,000). The Tuaregians in NV speak the Berber language tamasheq (about 720,000). The official language is French, although less than 10% of the population can speak, read and write French.

  • Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Niger? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.

Niger Geography