Qatar History and Society

By | December 14, 2021

Qatar. Emirate of the Middle East, independent since 1971, occupies the peninsula of the same name that is in the same accidental sector of the Persian Gulf. Doha is the capital city of Qatar according to itypemba.

Arab state located on the western coast of the Persian Gulf, bordered to the west by Saudi Arabia and to the south by the United Arab Emirates.


Qatar already appears in the Arab writings of the 10th century. In the 18th century the Wahhabi tribe of the Benjaminites imposed political and religious authority.

In 1869, it had been under the tutelage of Saudi Arabia since the beginning of the century, it entered the British colonial orbit because of the conflicts with Bahrain. Two years later (1871), the territory became part of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1913, Turkey granted autonomy to the country. Following the withdrawal of the Turks from the region, at the end of World War I, when the Ottoman Empire was dissolved, Qatar again fell under British protection in 1916. After the discovery of oil, Qatar began to exploit its reserves and in 1949 the country began its exports. In 1968, it joined the Federation of the United Arab Emirates.

In 1971, Great Britain ended its protectorate in the area and Qatar proclaimed its independence, but not before signing a treaty of friendship and cooperation with Great Britain. That same year he joined the UN and the Arab League.

The first Constitution was approved provisionally and contemplated the creation of a Consultative Assembly, in which part of its members would be elected. The Constitutional order, in fact, left power in the hands of the monarch.

A year later (1972) Sheikh Khalifa, the emir’s cousin and prime minister, overthrew Emir Ahmad. The extravagant privileges enjoyed by the royal family were limited and a series of social and economic reforms were then carried out. Among others, the introduction of the rial as a national currency (1973) and the nationalization of the oil industry (1977).

The Qatari armed forces occupied in 1986 the island of Fasht ad-Dibal, artificially built on an atoll, and whose sovereignty is also claimed by Bahrain.

In 1987, Qatar reestablished diplomatic relations with Egypt, following the reversal of the Arab League’s condemnation of that country, and in 1988 Qatar became the fourth Gulf country to establish diplomatic ties with the USSR.

In 1971 he achieved absolute independence and in 1995 Hamad ibn Khalifa al-Thani was defined as the new emir.

Social development


Oil revenues have enabled rapid development of the emirate’s public services. Health care is free for all residents of the country, whether or not they have Qatari nationality. In addition, there are grants and subsidies for the elderly, widows and orphans. In the country there are three government hospitals and a total of 20 health centers and 22 clinical schools, as well as a hospital center for women. The average life expectancy is 68 years for men and 72 for women.


Education is not compulsory, but it is free. Training for primary education begins at the age of six and lasts for six more. Secondary is divided into two cycles; the first is preparatory and lasts for three years. The second is done in three courses. In 1986, 98% of children were in school (100% in primary and 62% in secondary).

The University of Qatar is the main center for higher education in the country. The budget for the 1987-1988 academic year allocated the equivalent of 9.5% of public spending to education. The government has launched a series of programs that seek to raise the cultural level of the population and end illiteracy.


Doha: Located on the east coast of the Qatari peninsula, in the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the state and the most modern city in the country, with a long maritime and port tradition (its name means “bay”).

This city, due to its strategic location, was in the past a center of piracy in the Persian Gulf, when it was no more than a small town. In the 19th century, Doha was already an important supply center for the Ottoman Empire. During the time of the British protectorate, the city continued to play a leading role in this territory. The city was destroyed in 1867 in the war against Bahrain.

With the independence of the country, in 1971, Doha became the capital of Qatar. The discovery of important oil fields dramatically accelerated their development and modernization. Commercial and residential neighborhoods were built and the headquarters of the oil and fishing companies were installed.

Almost two-thirds of the population of Qatar resides in the urban area of Doha.

The Market Square and the Clock Tower stand out for their interest, as well as the new government residence (1969). Doha has an international airport in its vicinity.


  • Qatar is said to be the country in the world where the most tea and sugar are consumed per person and, in the Arab world, where the most fruits and vegetables are consumed. As far as fishing is concerned, they have no problems either, since 80% of the fish that feed the population is supplied by the waters of the Gulf.

Qatar History