Saudi Arabia Geography and Population

By | January 8, 2023

Saudi Arabia (Geography)

Saudi Arabia comprises 4/5 of the Arabian Peninsula; the borders go mostly through desert deserts and are only determined after conflicts with neighboring countries. The largest oil and natural gas fields are located in the eastern part of al-Hasa and offshore in the Persian Gulf. Al-Hasa also houses most of the growing industry, while the capital Riyadh is located in the central region of al-Najd, separated from the coast by desert. To the west, in al-Hijaz, lie the holy cities and the great port city of Jeddah. Here and to the south are the country’s highest mountains, Asir, which are the only areas where agriculture can be practiced without irrigation.

The climate is everywhere hot and dry with extremely hot summers. Outside the Asir Mountains, precipitation is very low. Only during a few weeks of spring rain does a sparse vegetation bloom in the desert. Rivers do not exist, and wadier very sporadically; the oases in the desert are based on groundwater. In some places, modern agricultural projects utilize fossil water, ie. deep-lying groundwater from the more humid climate of former times. The entire southeastern quarter of the country is covered by the arid and impassable sand desert al- Rub al-Khali.


The country’s first census was conducted as late as 1962, but the figures from both this and later censuses are considered completely unreliable, and there is generally a great deal of uncertainty regarding Saudi Arabia’s population and other demographic conditions. The background is political-strategic: Saudi Arabia wants to strengthen its status and prestige as an Arab, Islamic and Middle Eastern superpower, and in this context it does not count positively that the population is actually quite small compared to the countries competing for the superpower role. Against this background, the official estimate of the population should be read with skepticism. Population growth has certainly been quite high for a number of years, e.g. the large health sector has ensured a low infant mortality rate, but many doubt that there are so many native Saudis. An ever-increasing proportion of the population now lives in cities, women gain access to higher education and job opportunities, and the nuclear family is gaining ground. These are all factors that will reduce population growth in the future.

  • Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Saudi Arabia? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.

However, the position of women is still characterized by a very strict interpretation of Islam, and in general, civil and human rights in the Western sense are considered incompatible with Saudi Arabian customs and beliefs. On the other hand, the health and education systems have been greatly expanded, and in general Saudi Arabia is, materially speaking, a very modern society. Among other things. The road network in the vast country has been expanded with good highways and motorways, and private motoring is completely dominant in traffic. Aviation is also of great importance with three international and 24 domestic airports.

Pilgrims. Saudi Arabia has a very special role as host for the approximately 2 mio. pilgrims who come to Mecca every year in the last month of the Islamic calendar. The vast majority arrive in Jeddah, and during the hectic weeks it is a huge task to serve the pilgrims. Among other things. health care must protect against epidemics when so many people from all over the world gather. Several times, panic attacks have caused many to be trampled to death; in addition, there are the dangerous situations that arise when pilgrims are mostly in the open air, often with temperatures close to 50 °C. See also Mecca, hajj and Islam.


From the start of commercial oil production in 1938, the oil has belonged to the royal family. However, since King Faysal’s reform program in 1964, it has become clear that the regime has aimed to promote the structural development of the Saudi economy. The large increases in oil prices in the 1970’s provided Saudi Arabia with huge revenues, but subsequent price declines have underlined the need to invest in sectors of the economy other than oil. The construction of a large public sector, including large investments in the military, has meant that there has been a rapid distribution of wealth, but it has created a public sector that is primarily a distribution mechanism and less suitable for conducting state planning. out into life. In the 1990’s, greater emphasis has been placed on practical results in the form of agricultural and industrial production. Keywords are diversification and Saudiization; There is an increasing focus on private individuals supplementing and replacing the royal family as initiators and investors. Much of the new industry is located in two new cities, Jubail on the Persian Gulf and Yanbu on the Red Sea.

Oil production has throughout the years been run with great efficiency by Aramco, the Arabian American Oil Company. It was American until 1973, when the Saudi state nationalized 25% of the shares; in 1976 it took full ownership. It has continuously invested in new exploration and more efficient technology and has thus maintained its leading position in the world market. In 2005, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimated that Saudi Arabia had an oil reserve of 262 billion. barrels, which corresponds to approximately 1/4of the world’s known oil reserves. The country also has the world’s fourth largest gas reserve. Saudi Arabia’s gas and oil are extracted from more than 1,000 wells located both on the mainland and in the Persian Gulf, but originate mainly from eight superfields, including the world’s two largest oil fields, the Ghawar and Saffaniya fields. Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest oil producer with a production of 10-11 million. barrels a day (2005). EIA estimates that even with a production of 15 million. barrels of oil a day, there will be enough oil for at least 50 years of unchanged production. For both oil and gas, the reserves are relatively easily accessible, which means that production costs are low. Oil and gas production in Saudi Arabia will therefore remain profitable, even if oil prices fall sharply.

Agriculture. Despite the vast desert areas, Saudi Arabia is self-sufficient in many foods. In the southwestern provinces, cultivation can be done without irrigation, but much is grown in large irrigated farms in the desert. From the air, they are seen as circular green spots that reflect the irrigation system that runs around a deep water well.

Saudi Arabia – language

Standard Arabic, which is the official language, is the country’s written language. The modern spoken dialects have evolved predominantly from the Qur’anic language and not from the original pre-Islamic dialects. English is widespread, also in the education system. For culture and traditions of Saudi Arabia, please check animalerts.

Saudi Arabia (Religion)

Saudi Arabia is religiously dominated by an Islamic interpretation formulated by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhaband since then has been the ideological reference for the various states that the Saudi family has tried to establish, thus also modern Saudi Arabia. The political legitimacy of the Saud family is ensured through close cooperation with the jurists. In recent years, this collaboration has been the subject of growing criticism. It is claimed that the Saud family, through its control of the country’s riches, has made the jurists dependent on the state and thus, in effect, has freed itself from its traditional cooperation with them. It is estimated that approximately 85% of the population follow the Wahhabi version of Islam, while the remaining 15% are Shia Muslims. Wahhabism is based on a strict interpretation of Islam, which is strongly judgmental of what is being interpreted as deviant traditions.

Saudi Arabia Geography