According to microedu, Algeria is a People’s Democratic Republic. The Constitution is in force in 1989, as amended in 1996. Algeria is a centralized state, although local governments have significant powers to manage local affairs.
The constitution establishes a two-tier system of administrative-territorial division: the commune and the wilaya (province). Algiers is divided into 48 wilayas and 1541 communes.
Vilai (with a population of over 700 thousand): Chlef, Batna, Bejaia, Blida, Tlemcen, Tiaret, Tizi-Uzu, Djel-fa, Setif, Skikda, Konstantin, Medea, Msila, Oran and Greater Algeria (a special status)
Major cities: Algiers, Oran, Constantine, Annaba, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda.
The main state institutions of power are the president (the highest executive power), the government (executive power), the bicameral parliament (legislative power) and the court — an independent state body.
The President is elected by universal, direct and secret suffrage for a term of 5 years and can be re-elected once. He is simultaneously the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, the Minister of Defense and the head of the Supreme Security Council (an advisory body).
The government is a collegial body of executive power subordinate to the president. The president appoints the head of government and approves the ministers. In 2002, Ali Benflis was appointed head of government.
Parliament consists of two chambers: the lower – the National People’s Assembly (NPC) and the upper – the Council of the Nation (SN). Members of the NNC are elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The right to vote is granted from the age of 18. 2/3 of the SN are elected from among the deputies of the People’s Assemblies of the Communes (PJC) and the People’s Assemblies of the Wilays (PSV) by the deputies of these local authorities by secret ballot. 1/3 is appointed by the president.
NSC is elected for 5 years, SN – for 6 years. The composition of the CH is updated by 50% every 3 years. Chairman of the NNC – Karim Younes. Chairman of the Council of Ministers – Abdelkader Bensalah.
The People’s Assemblies of the Communes and the People’s Assemblies of the Wilays are elected by universal, direct, secret ballot for 5 years. Their main powers are the adoption and implementation of local development plans within the framework of national programs. The chairman of the NSC is also the executive body of the commune. The vilays have an Executive Council headed by a wali (governor) appointed by the president. All chairmen of the NSC in the territory of the wilay are subordinate to him. The last parliamentary and local elections were held in 2002.
Since 1989, a law on a multi-party system has been in force. There are St. 60 parties. Secular parties: National Liberation Front – FNO (founded in 1954), Front of Socialist Forces – FSS (1963), National Democratic Association – NDO (1997), Association for Culture and Democracy – OKD (1989).
Legal Islamist parties: Movement for National Reform – DPR (1999), Society for Peace Movement – DOM (1991), An-Nahda Movement (1990). All of these parties, except for the opposition FSS and OKD, are members of parliament.
Public organizations: The General Union of Algerian Workers – VSAT (1956), conducts active social and political work, has 5 million people, is a member of the International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions (ICAP) and the All-African Federation of Trade Unions (WAFP); National Union of Algerian Women (NUW) (created in 1962); National Organization of Mujahideen (Veterans of War) (NOM). There are a number of creative unions and professional corporate associations.
The main direction of domestic policy is the search for civil consent. “Irreconcilable” armed formations of Muslim extremists continue to operate in the country. Algeria has succeeded in putting an end to terrorism as a mass phenomenon, but the threat of an onslaught of Islamism remains. At the hands of Islamic terrorists, St. 150 thousand people
In foreign policy, Algeria opposes colonialism, racism, and condemns Israel’s policy in the Middle East. As a supporter of declaring Africa and the Middle East as nuclear-free zones, he joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1995. In the 1970s – a participant in the creation of the Union of the Arab Maghreb (AMU), in the 1990s. contributed to the settlement of a number of conflicts in Africa, in particular between Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 2000, he joined the NATO Mediterranean Initiative, an organization designed to maintain stability in the region. In 2001 signed an association agreement with the EU.
Algerian-Russian ties are reviving, having declined in the 1990s. In 2001, the presidents of the Russian Federation and Algeria signed a declaration on strategic partnership.
Military establishment. The total number of the National People’s Army (NPA) is 124 thousand people. (2002). Reserve 150 thousand people, paramilitary formations 181.2 thousand people, incl. gendarmerie 60 thousand, security forces 20 thousand, Republican Guard 1.2 thousand, civil defense troops 100 thousand people. The number of Ground Forces is 107 thousand, the Navy is 7 thousand, the Air Force is 10 thousand people. It is formed on the basis of universal military service. Service life on call 18 months. The draft age is 19-25 years.
Algeria has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in March 1962).