Sudan Geography and Population

By | January 8, 2023

Sudan – Geography

Sudan Geography, Following a military government decision in the 1990’s, Sudan was divided into 26 states, a division that is, however, not widely recognized. The terms North Sudan and South Sudan refer to the time (1972-83) when three southern provinces, Bahr al-Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile, had a degree of internal self-government with administrative headquarters in Juba, which was again brought about by the January 2005 peace agreement. between the SPLA rebel movement and the government.

Physical Geography

The landscape in Sudan is dominated by large, flat plains, in the north as extensive sand and stone deserts with no or sparse vegetation, among other things. The Nubian Desert. The deserts are gradually slipping into more fertile agricultural areas along the Nile River through central and eastern Sudan. Here, mechanized agriculture produces a considerable harvest of, among other things. millet and wheat in addition to a variety of vegetables and fruits. In the transition zones Darfur, Kordofan and Blue Nile are large areas of rubber arabic-producing acacia trees and grazing for goats, camels (dromedaries) and cows.

Further south lies al-Sudd (Arab. The ‘barrier’), which is a vast swampy area with dense and tall grass and in the river Papyrus and water hyacinths that block its places. The area is inhabited by semi-nomadic farmers with herds of cattle. Large volumes of Nile water evaporate from the vast swamps; a plan to drain the water faster by digging a drainage channel (Jongleikanalen) was interrupted by the civil war in 1984. The environmental and social consequences of completing the project will be far-reaching, but not fully known.

In the southern provinces the savannah dominates with lush grass and many trees, and farthest towards the SV there is tropical rainforest. The area is fertile, but the rugged soil makes road transport even very difficult during the rainy season.

Oil is found in several fields in southwestern Sudan and in quantities that can have a significant impact on the poor country’s economy. Development of the fields began in the 1970’s with the construction of a pipeline to the oil refinery in Port Sudan, but production stopped abruptly in 1984 when rebel soldiers attacked the plants, which were quickly evacuated for their French and American technicians. In 1999, extraction was resumed, now of Sudanese, Malay, Indian and Chinese interests, but until the 2005 peace agreement, the civil war put serious obstacles in the way of the business. The peace agreement also laid down the principles for an equal distribution of oil revenues between North and South Sudan.

The Nile and the infrastructure

Despite the oil, the water of the Nile remains Sudan’s most important natural resource. Water is crucial for food production, but also for relations with Egypt, the great neighbor of the north, who has an ever-growing need for water in the Nile.

The Nile stretch through Sudan from Uganda to Egypt is approximately 3000 km long. Where the White and Blue Nile run together, lies the capital Khartoum. The river basins are important transport routes, although acts of war often make sailing on the southern parts of the White Nile impossible.

Sudan’s enormous distances seem even greater due to a poorly developed infrastructure. Asphalt roads connect the major cities in northern Sudan, but in large parts in the south and west there are only ruts that are often impassable during the rainy season. Bus connections are only found to the north, and for the general population, transport on overcrowded trucks and on foot is common. Some dilapidated railways connect Khartoum with Port Sudan and major cities to the north and SW. The capital has an international airport and there are local airports in many provincial cities. Improvised runways are being built in villages in southern Sudan for emergency supplies during the recurring famines. Telephones, water supply and electricity are found only around the major cities and especially to the north. Broadcasts from the national radio and television station can be received in most of the country.


The population is ethnically composed. Statistical information is lacking, but both birth rate and population growth are great. Millions of people from southern and western Sudan are internally displaced and live in refugee camps around Khartoum and other major cities, as do a large number of people living in primitive refugee camps in Darfur. Additional at least DKK 1 million Sudanese have fled to neighboring Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Chad and Egypt.

  • Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Sudan? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.


The original wildlife was, especially in the south, rich in lions, elephants, giraffes and the other East African big game species. Cultivation, frequent grass fires and widespread poaching have reduced the stocks considerably. The civil wars have meant that all forms of surveillance and regulation have collapsed and nothing can be said about the status of wildlife. Among other things. al-Sudd is winter quarters for huge numbers of migratory birds from the north; storks, vultures, pelicans and geese can all be seen in Sudan. Insect life is abundant, and mosquitoes, tsetse flies and other disease carriers pose a continuing health threat to humans and animals. Swarms of migratory grasshoppers are also a recurring threat in late summer.

Sudan – peoples

Sudan – peoples, About half of the population are Arabs, who are dominant in the northern and central parts of the country. Other people, who are predominantly Muslims, are Nubians (about 3%) in the north and beja (about 6%) in the east. The likewise Muslim Hausa (4%) in the central part of the country are descendants of contract workers who British colonial power imported from Nigeria in the 1930’s. In the Darfur mountain area in the west live fur (3.5%). East of Darfur in the Kordofan region live a number of groups, which together are called nuba (5%). They are descended from various peoples who have sought refuge in the Nuba Mountains over the centuries, on the run from slave hunters; some of them are Muslims, but most have retained their traditional African religions. For culture and traditions of Sudan, please check allunitconverters.

From 1983 to 2005, the Khartoum government waged war on the approximately 25% of non-Muslims living in the southern part of the country; these peoples are made up of various Nilotic tribes (including Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk). In the course of the civil war, however, there were also war actions between, for example, Dinkas and Nuer.

Sudan Geography