Located in northern Europe, Sweden is bordered to the east by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia, giving the country a long coastline, which forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. To the west are the Scandinavian Alps, which form a natural border with Norway. To the northeast it borders Finland, to the southwest with the Straits of Skagerrak, Kattegat and Öresund. In addition, it has marine limits with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia; and is connected to Denmark by the Oresund Bridge. Stockholm is the capital city of Sweden comprehensive information can be found on itypejob.
At 449,964 km², Sweden is the 55th largest country in the world. It is the fifth largest in Europe, and the largest in Northern Europe with a population of over 9.2 million residents as of 2008.
Most of Sweden has a temperate climate, despite its latitude, with four different seasons and mild temperatures all year round. The country can be divided into three types of climates: the southern part with an oceanic climate, the central part with a humid continental climate and the northern part with a boreal climate. However, Sweden is warmer and drier than other places at similar latitudes and at other latitudes even further south, mainly due to the Gulf Stream. For example, the central and southern parts of the country have warmer winters than many parts of Russia, Canada, and the United States. Due to its location, the length of the day varies greatly.
North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets on some days in summer, and on some days in winter it never rises. The day in Stockholm lasts more than 18 hours at the end of June, but only around 6 hours at the end of December. Much of the Swedish territory receives between 1,600 and 2,000 hours of sunlight annually.
The temperature varies from north to south. The central and southern part of the country has hot summers and cold winters, with maximum temperatures between 20 and 25 ° C and minimum temperatures between 12 and 15 ° C during the summer; and an average temperature of -4 to 2 ° C in the winter. For its part, the northern part of the country has shorter and cooler summers, and longer and colder winters, with temperatures usually below freezing from September to May. Heat waves occur occasionally, and temperatures above 25 ° C occur for several days in the summer, sometimes even in the northern part of the country. The highest recorded temperature in Sweden was 38 ° C in Målilla in 1947, while the lowest temperature was -52.6 ° C in Vuoggatjålme in 1966.
On average, most of Sweden receives between 500 and 800 mm of precipitation each year, making the country considerably drier than the world average. The southwest is the region of the country with the highest rainfall, between 1000 and 1200 mm, and in some mountainous areas in the north it is estimated that more than 2000 mm of precipitation is received. Snowfalls occur from December to March in the south, from November to April in the center, and from October to May in the north of Sweden. Despite its geographical location, the central and southern parts of the country tend to be virtually snow-free.
In order to protect Sweden from invasions by foreign fleets and to put an end to the looting of which cities such as Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren were victims. Under the influence of Magnus Ladulás, Stockholm prospers thanks to its commercial relations with Lubeck. It is then part of the Hanseatic League.
In 1270, Stockholm was described in documents as a true city, and in 1289 it was already the largest city in Sweden. The first reliable estimate of its population dates back to the 15th century.
There were then about a thousand heads of families, which was equivalent to about five to six thousand residents. In 1350, the city knows an episode of Black Death, with devastating consequences.
At the end of 1419 it was proclaimed the capital of Sweden. Its strategic position, as well as its economic weight, make it an important place in the relations between the Danish kingdoms of the Kalmar Union and the Swedish independence movement during the 15th century.
There were numerous battles, most notably the Battle of Brunkeberg won in 1471 by Sten Sture the Elder against the King of Denmark Christian I, and the Stockholm Bloodbath which will take place in 1520 by Christian II of Denmark, which would end the Union from Kalmar.
In 1521, Gustavo Vasa made his entry into Stockholm and signaled the beginning of a new era for Sweden. The city grows and extends beyond Stadsholmen on Södermalm and Norrmalm. In 1600, it already has about twelve thousand residents.
In the seventeenth century Stockholm was already a major European city. Between 1610 and 1680 its population multiplied by six. Ladugårdslandet, currently named Östermalm, as well as the island of Kungsholmen, are at that time absorbed by the city.
In 1628, during the reign of Gustav II Adolf, the warship Vasa capsized in Stockholm. In the same year, the rules that give Stockholm a monopoly on exchanges between foreign traders and Scandinavian territories are established.
At this time, numerous castles and palaces were built for the nobles, among which are the House of Nobility (Riddarhuset) and in the 18th century the Royal Palace.
After the Great Northern War, which would lead to the partial destruction of the city, Stockholm sees its growth begin to decline. It retains, however, its role as the political capital of Sweden, and under the reign of Gustav III of Sweden affirms its cultural superiority. The Royal Opera is a good example of the architecture of this era.
During the 20th century, Stockholm rehabilitated a large part of its center, which had narrow, curved streets that posed problems as traffic increased. The municipal authorities here prohibited the renovation of the buildings, especially those that comprise the area near the Central Station.
The Stockholm Metro was built from 1950, and the Kista district has become an important center for new technologies. In 1986 Prime Minister Olof Palme died after being shot down in the middle of the street, and in 2003 Foreign Minister Anna Lindh was assassinated in the Nordiska Kompaniet department store.
Stockholm has 16 universities, including the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm University and the Royal Stockholm Institute of Technology (KTH). Their number is expanding, as evidenced by the creation of Södertörns Högskola to the south (Flemingsberg). Royal Academies that are also located in Stockholm, are the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden and the Swedish Academy that decide every year who will receive the Nobel Prizes.
These are the main places of access to tourism:
- Gamla Stan: The medieval old quarter, Stockholm Storkyrkan Cathedral and the Royal Palace.
- Skansen: an open-air museum (literally, ” The Bastion “) located on the island of Djurgården, near the center of Stockholm. Old buildings from all over Sweden are found there, and it reproduces what life was like in cities and towns since the 16th century. There is also a part dedicated to the Lapp people, as well as a small natural park (with different species of Nordic animals, such as moose, bears, etc.) and an aquarium.
- Vasa Museum: In it you can see a 17th century warship (the Wasa) with a curious history: it sank just finished building, in 1628, 1,300 meters from the shipyards. The cause is simply the fact that the ship was too heavy to navigate. He was rescued in 1961.
- Kungliga Slottet: It is the Royal Palace and the official residence of the royal family. It was built in the 18th century. With 608 rooms, it is the largest in the world Modernamuseet: It is the museum of Modern Art in Stockholm, and one of the main exhibitions of modern art of the 20th century in all of Europe.
Stockholm Education provides information on the various schools and universities in the city. Various courses are offered at educational institutions in Stockholm.
There is also the Stockholm International School. This school was formerly known as the Angla-American school. Mrs. Gisela Dietze appointed this educational institute in 1951. A number of subjects are taught at this school.
The Stockholm School of Economics is one of the notable universities in Stockholm. Students can pursue management degrees, graduation and PhD programs from this reputed Stockholm educational institution. This university is a private institution and was established in 1909 in Stockholm.
The Royal Institute of Technology is one of the best universities in Sweden offering technical education to students. Karolinska Institutet is a medical university set near Stockholm, in Solna.
Karolinska University Hospital is linked with this educational institute. They established the institute in 1810 which is one of the most reputable institutions in Stockholm, to pursue higher studies.
The Swedish National Academy of Mime and Acting provides courses in acting. At this institute, students can take Temporary Program and Mime Temporary Courses. Another important academic institution in Stockholm is the University of Stockholm.
Name of Stockholm in other languages
- Stockholm in Swedish (where the ‘h’ is silent in this case)
- Holmia in latin
- Tukholma in Finnish
- Stoccolma in Italian
- Sztokholm in Polish
- Stokgolm (Стокгольм) in Russian
In French, English and German the name of the city is written in the same way as in Swedish, although the pronunciation differs.
- Emanuel Swedenborg (1688 – 1772), scientist, theologian, and philosopher.
- Charles-Louis Didelot (1767 – 1837), dancer.
- Alfred Nobel (1833 – 1896), industrialist and scientist.
- August Strindberg (1849 – 1912), writer.
- Carl Larsson (1852 – 1919), painter.
- Folke Bernadotte (1895 – 1948), diplomat.
- Rolf Sievert (1896 – 1966), physicist.
- Greta Garbo (1905 – 1990), actress.
- Raoul Wallenberg (1912 – date of death uncertain), diplomat.
- Ingrid Bergman (1915 – 1982), actress.
- Lars Gyllensten (1921), novelist.
- Benny Andersson (1946), composer.
- Lasse Hallström (1946), filmmaker.
- Art Spiegelman (1948), graphic novelist.
- Christer Fuglesang (1957), astronaut.
- Jens Johansson (1963), keyboardist.
- Yngwie Malmsteen (1963), guitarist.
- Annika Sörenstam (1970), golf player.
- Peter Tägtgren (1970), musician.
- Anders Niklas Andersson (Nick Royale), (1972), musician.
- Robyn (1979), singer.
- Marie Eleonor Serneholt (1983), singer.
- John Dhani Lennevald (1984), singer.
- Sara Helena Lumholdt (1984), singer.